Tag: Anatomy and Physiology

A Horse Has 5 Toes, and Then It Doesn’t

From the perspective of evolutionary and developmental biologists, a horse’s hoof is literally a giant middle finger. It seems to be the remnant of a foot that once had five full toes, with only three remaining visible — two vestigial digits are still on either side of the large, hardened middle digit, but there is […]

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How Insects Cope When Blood Rushes to Their Heads

You wouldn’t think gravity would be a big worry for insects. They’re so small. So light. An ant that fell from a second-floor balcony and landed on its head wouldn’t even get a bruise. Consequently, scientists have not concerned themselves greatly with what gravity does to insects. But a group of scientists who routinely put […]

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