Is arriving at the airport 2 hours before a flight too early? You might need 3, in some cases.

Want to start an argument? Tell your travel companion you won’t be arriving two hours before your flight.

Go on, try it. I’ll be right here.

No, this isn’t a frivolous, first-world problem. Vacations have been ruined because of it. Marriages have ended. And with a record-breaking summer for air travel ahead, it’s time to settle this question once and for all.

As with so many things in travel, there’s a simple answer – and a complicated one.

The simple answer is: Two hours for domestic flights, three hours for international flights. (More or less.)

“The two-hour recommendation is fairly standard across the industry,” says Heather Lissner, Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport spokesperson. “We recommend the two hours so that travelers have enough time to get dropped off or park their cars, check their bags and get through security to their gates.”

The complicated answer: It depends.

Did you get to the airport too late or too early? Tell us about your experience. ​​​​​

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Lissner explains that while experienced travelers may find they need less time, the two hours gives those who don’t travel as frequently a chance to have a less rushed and stressful travel experience. And during busy holiday periods or special events, the airport may recommend adding even more time.

A few years ago, the folks at Sky Harbor adopted a “3-2-1” recommendation: Arrive at the airport ticket counter to check-in three hours before your flight; be in line at the airport security checkpoint two hours before your flight; be at the gate one hour before your flight.

How “standard” is this advice? The Transportation Security Administration agrees with it, and some airlines, too. For instance, American Airlines advises passengers to be at the airport three hours before flight time for international departures and two hours for domestic flights. There’s an exception for flights to certain overseas destinations, which require that you check in earlier.

United Airlines’ minimum check-in times range from 30 minutes to 90 minutes, depending on the type of flight. If you have luggage to check, you may have to check in earlier, and there is a list of airports that are exceptions to the rule.

Confused yet?

It may help to note the likely motives behind the advice. The TSA and airports want you to get there earlier, each for its own reasons. The agency does not like to be rushed with screenings, even if there’s a long security line. Airports want you to take advantage of their incredible shopping and dining facilities, which you can’t do if you’re rushing to the gate. Also, they factor in the time it takes to find parking. Airlines, on the other hand, don’t want you milling around the boarding area for too long.

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Travelers wait in line for TSA at Austin-Bergstrom International Airport on Friday, Dec. 17, 2021.

But these guidelines don’t take into account the fact that you’re dealing with people – some with mobility problems, others who are nervous and would arrive a day before their flight if they could. That’s where things get interesting, and that’s where the “depends” really becomes apparent.

Joe Reimers, a sales engineer from South Bend, Indiana, describes himself as a “conservative” traveler, especially when he’s checking a bag. But if he flies out of his home airport, which he knows well, he sometimes arrives just 45 minutes before his departure.

“Flying out of less familiar airports on return trips is a different story,” he says. He sticks to the airline advice of two hours for international flights and 90 minutes for domestic flights. “At very large airports, I may go even longer,” he adds.

Yet other experienced travelers say their lead time is always the same. Douglas Jensen, an IT consultant from Natick, Massachusetts, is a top-level elite frequent flier with 45 years of air travel experience.

“I always allow two hours for domestic flights and three hours for international flights,” he says. That means leaving his home at 1 a.m. for a 5 a.m. flight gives him the security of knowing that he won’t miss his flight.

And that really is the object of this whole exercise: not to miss the flight. So the real question is whether to go with the airport and TSA-recommended more generous arrival times or the airline times that cut it a little closer.

In this case, the airports and the TSA are absolutely correct. Never mind the overpriced airport food, the tacky duty-free shops your local airport wants you to frequent, or the pat-down the TSA agents hope you’ll endure. And forget the seasonal lull, which will probably be over by the time you’re finished with this article.

If you miss your flight, you have a whole new set of problems. You don’t want to go there.

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What to do at the airport for free while you wait

  • See the art. Phoenix Sky Harbor, for example, has an impressive collection of art. Terminal 3 has art dedicated to Arizona’s flora and fauna through this fall.
  • Watch the planes. One of the best places to plane-spot is Honolulu International Airport (HNL). Terminals there are connected by long, open-air walkways, where you can see the aircraft up close, smell the aircraft fuel and hear the deafening roar of aircraft engines revving up. Other observation opportunities can be found on the Spotters Wiki: spotterswiki.com.
  • Take a hike. Sitting in a pressurized aluminum tube for hours at a time is no one’s idea of fun. But you can stretch your legs before you take off by walking through the airport terminal. The longest walkable concourse? That would be Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. It’s 2.16 miles from check-in to your gate at DFW.

This story was originally published on Feb. 19, 2017.

Did you get to the airport too late or too early? Tell us about your experience. 

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